# Coding conventions¶

## General recommendations¶

Syntax is chosen as much as possible from the user point of view, to reflect the concepts as directly as possible. Ideally, a Brian script should be readable by someone who doesn’t know Python or Brian, although this isn’t always possible. Function, class and keyword argument names should be explicit rather than abbreviated and consistent across Brian. See Romain’s paper On the design of script languages for neural simulators for a discussion.

We use the PEP-8 coding conventions for our code. This in particular includes the following conventions:

• Use 4 spaces instead of tabs per indentation level

• Use spaces after commas and around the following binary operators: assignment (=), augmented assignment (+=, -= etc.), comparisons (==, <, >, !=, <>, <=, >=, in, not in, is, is not), Booleans (and, or, not).

• Do not use spaces around the equals sign in keyword arguments or when specifying default values. Neither put spaces immediately inside parentheses, brackets or braces, immediately before the open parenthesis that starts the argument list of a function call, or immediately before the open parenthesis that starts an indexing or slicing.

• Avoid using a backslash for continuing lines whenever possible, instead use Python’s implicit line joining inside parentheses, brackets and braces.

• imports should be on different lines (e.g. do not use import sys, os) and should be grouped in the following order, using blank lines between each group:

1. standard library imports

2. third-party library imports (e.g. numpy, scipy, sympy, …)

3. brian imports

• Use absolute imports for everything outside of “your” package, e.g. if you are working in brian2.equations, import functions from the stringtools modules via from brian2.utils.stringtools import .... Use the full path when importing, e.g. do from brian2.units.fundamentalunits import seconds instead of from brian2 import seconds.

• Use “new-style” relative imports for everything in “your” package, e.g. in brian2.codegen.functions.py import the Function class as from .specifiers import Function.

• Do not use wildcard imports (from brian2 import *), instead import only the identifiers you need, e.g. from brian2 import NeuronGroup, Synapses. For packages like numpy that are used a lot, use import numpy as np. But note that the user should still be able to do something like from brian2 import * (and this style can also be freely used in examples and tests, for example). Modules always have to use the __all__ mechanism to specify what is being made available with a wildcard import. As an exception from this rule, the main brian2/__init__.py may use wildcard imports.

## String formatting¶

In general, we use Python f-strings instead of the .format method or the % operator to format strings. For example, rather use:

raise KeyError(f"Unknown variable '{var}'")  # ✔


raise KeyError("Unknown variable '{}'".format(var))  #  ❌
raise KeyError("Unknown variable %s" % var)  #  ❌


There are some corner cases where it still makes sense to use either of these, though. The format method can be useful when processing several strings instead of single literals:

formatted = []
for s in strings:
formatted.append(s.format(**values))


The % operator, or string concatenation, can be used when dealing with strings that contain curly braces, which would become difficult to read as an f-string:

latex_code = r'\begin{equation}%s\end{equation}' % equation  # OK
latex_code = r'\begin{equation}' + equation + r'\end{equation}' # OK


Python does not make a difference between single quotation marks and double quotation marks. For consistency, try to follow the following rules:

• docstrings should always be enclosed in triple double quotes, following PEP 257.

• User-facing text (e.g. error messages) should use double quotes, and single quotes for marking words within the string. Example: "Missing 'threshold' argument"

• General strings with internal meaning (e.g. dictionary keys) should use single quotation marks. Example: events['spike']

• Use your own judgement for other strings, e.g. generated code. If you need to use single or double quotes within the string, use the other quote type to avoid having to resort to backslashes. Example: include = f'#include "{header_file}"'

## Commits only changing the style¶

Please do not make commits that only change the code style in a file, even though many files do not completely follow the rules mentioned earlier. However, if you are commiting edits to a file for different reasons, please do follow this style for your changes and, if necessary, change the surrounding code to fit the style (within reason).

We sometimes do make big commits updating the style in our code, which can make using tools like git blame more difficult, since many lines affected by such commits. We add the references to such commits to a file .git-blame-ignore-revs in the main directory, and you can tell git blame to ignore these commits with:

git config blame.ignoreRevsFile .git-blame-ignore-revs