It is very important to maintain documentation. We use the Sphinx documentation generator tools. The documentation is all hand written. Sphinx source files are stored in the docs_sphinx folder. The HTML files can be generated via the script dev/tools/docs/ and end up in the docs folder.

Most of the documentation is stored directly in the Sphinx source text files, but reference documentation for important Brian classes and functions are kept in the documentation strings of those classes themselves. This is automatically pulled from these classes for the reference manual section of the documentation. The idea is to keep the definitive reference documentation near the code that it documents, serving as both a comment for the code itself, and to keep the documentation up to date with the code.

The reference documentation includes all classes, functions and other objects that are defined in the modules and only documents them in the module where they were defined. This makes it possible to document a class like Quantity only in brian2.units.fundamentalunits and not additionally in brian2.units and brian2. This mechanism relies on the __module__ attribute, in some cases, in particular when wrapping a function with a decorator (e.g. check_units), this attribute has to be set manually:

foo.__module__ = __name__

Without this manual setting, the function might not be documented at all or in the wrong module.

In addition to the reference, all the examples in the examples folder are automatically included in the documentation.

Note that you can directly link to github issues using :issue:`issue number`, e.g. writing :issue:`33` links to a github issue about running benchmarks for Brian 2: # 33. This feature should rarely be used in the main documentation, reserve its use for release notes and important known bugs.


Every module, class, method or function has to start with a docstring, unless it is a private or special method (i.e. starting with _ or __) and it is obvious what it does. For example, there is normally no need to document __str__ with “Return a string representation.”.

For the docstring format, we use the our own sphinx extension (in brian2/sphinxext) based on numpydoc, allowing to write docstrings that are well readable both in sourcecode as well as in the rendered HTML. We generally follow the format used by numpy

When the docstring uses variable, class or function names, these should be enclosed in single backticks. Class and function/method names will be automatically linked to the corresponding documentation. For classes imported in the main brian2 package, you do not have to add the package name, e.g. writing `NeuronGroup` is enough. For other classes, you have to give the full path, e.g. `brian2.units.fundamentalunits.UnitRegistry`. If it is clear from the context where the class is (e.g. within the documentation of UnitRegistry), consider using the ~ abbreviation: `~brian2.units.fundamentalunits.UnitRegistry` displays only the class name: UnitRegistry. Note that you do not have to enclose the exception name in a “Raises” or “Warns” section, or the class/method/function name in a “See Also” section in backticks, they will be automatically linked (putting backticks there will lead to incorrect display or an error message),

Inline source fragments should be enclosed in double backticks.

Class docstrings follow the same conventions as method docstrings and should document the __init__ method, the __init__ method itself does not need a docstring.

Documenting functions and methods

The docstring for a function/method should start with a one-line description of what the function does, without referring to the function name or the names of variables. Use a “command style” for this summary, e.g. “Return the result.” instead of “Returns the result.” If the signature of the function cannot be automatically extracted because of an decorator (e.g. check_units()), place a signature in the very first row of the docstring, before the one-line description.

For methods, do not document the self parameter, nor give information about the method being static or a class method (this information will be automatically added to the documentation).

Documenting classes

Class docstrings should use the same “Parameters” and “Returns” sections as method and function docstrings for documenting the __init__ constructor. If a class docstring does not have any “Attributes” or “Methods” section, these sections will be automatically generated with all documented (i.e. having a docstring), public (i.e. not starting with _) attributes respectively methods of the class. Alternatively, you can provide these sections manually. This is useful for example in the Quantity class, which would otherwise include the documentation of many ndarray methods, or when you want to include documentation for functions like __getitem__ which would otherwise not be documented. When specifying these sections, you only have to state the names of documented methods/attributes but you can also provide direct documentation. For example:

    This is a description.

This can be used for example for class or instance attributes which do not have “classical” docstrings. However, you can also use a special syntax: When defining class attributes in the class body or instance attributes in __init__ you can use the following variants (here shown for instance attributes):

def __init__(a, b, c):
    #: The docstring for the instance attribute a.
    #: Can also span multiple lines
    self.a = a

    self.b = b #: The docstring for self.b (only one line).

    self.c = c
    'The docstring for self.c, directly *after* its definition'

Long example of a function docstring

This is a very long docstring, showing all the possible sections. Most of the time no See Also, Notes or References section is needed:

def foo(var1, var2, long_var_name='hi') :
A one-line summary that does not use variable names or the function name.

Several sentences providing an extended description. Refer to
variables using back-ticks, e.g. `var1`.

var1 : array_like
    Array_like means all those objects -- lists, nested lists, etc. --
    that can be converted to an array.  We can also refer to
    variables like `var1`.
var2 : int
    The type above can either refer to an actual Python type
    (e.g. ``int``), or describe the type of the variable in more
    detail, e.g. ``(N,) ndarray`` or ``array_like``.
Long_variable_name : {'hi', 'ho'}, optional
    Choices in brackets, default first when optional.

describe : type
output : type
tuple : type
items : type
    even more explaining

    Because you shouldn't have done that.

See Also
otherfunc : relationship (optional)
newfunc : Relationship (optional), which could be fairly long, in which
          case the line wraps here.
thirdfunc, fourthfunc, fifthfunc

Notes about the implementation algorithm (if needed).

This can have multiple paragraphs.

You may include some math:

.. math:: X(e^{j\omega } ) = x(n)e^{ - j\omega n}

And even use a greek symbol like :math:`omega` inline.

Cite the relevant literature, e.g. [1]_.  You may also cite these
references in the notes section above.

.. [1] O. McNoleg, "The integration of GIS, remote sensing,
   expert systems and adaptive co-kriging for environmental habitat
   modelling of the Highland Haggis using object-oriented, fuzzy-logic
   and neural-network techniques," Computers & Geosciences, vol. 22,
   pp. 585-588, 1996.

These are written in doctest format, and should illustrate how to
use the function.

>>> a=[1,2,3]
>>> print([x + 3 for x in a])
[4, 5, 6]
>>> print("a\nb")