Source code for brian2.parsing.sympytools

Utility functions for parsing expressions and statements.

import re
from collections import Counter

import sympy
from sympy.printing.precedence import precedence
from sympy.printing.str import StrPrinter

from brian2.core.functions import (DEFAULT_FUNCTIONS, DEFAULT_CONSTANTS,
from brian2.parsing.rendering import SympyNodeRenderer
from brian2.utils.caching import cached

[docs]def check_expression_for_multiple_stateful_functions(expr, variables): identifiers = re.findall(r'\w+', expr) # Don't bother counting if we don't have any duplicates in the first place if len(identifiers) == len(set(identifiers)): return identifier_count = Counter(identifiers) for identifier, count in identifier_count.items(): var = variables.get(identifier, None) if count > 1 and isinstance(var, Function) and not var.stateless: raise NotImplementedError(('The expression "{expr}" contains ' 'more than one call of {func}, this ' 'is currently not supported since ' '{func} is a stateful function and ' 'its multiple calls might be ' 'treated incorrectly (e.g.' '"rand() - rand()" could be ' ' simplified to ' '"0.0").').format(expr=expr, func=identifier))
[docs]def str_to_sympy(expr, variables=None): ''' Parses a string into a sympy expression. There are two reasons for not using `sympify` directly: 1) sympify does a ``from sympy import *``, adding all functions to its namespace. This leads to issues when trying to use sympy function names as variable names. For example, both ``beta`` and ``factor`` -- quite reasonable names for variables -- are sympy functions, using them as variables would lead to a parsing error. 2) We want to use a common syntax across expressions and statements, e.g. we want to allow to use `and` (instead of `&`) and function names like `ceil` (instead of `ceiling`). Parameters ---------- expr : str The string expression to parse. variables : dict, optional Dictionary mapping variable/function names in the expr to their respective `Variable`/`Function` objects. Returns ------- s_expr A sympy expression Raises ------ SyntaxError In case of any problems during parsing. ''' if variables is None: variables = {} check_expression_for_multiple_stateful_functions(expr, variables) # We do the actual transformation in a separate function that is cached # If we cached `str_to_sympy` itself, it would also use the contents of the # variables dictionary as the cache key, while it is only used for the check # above and does not affect the translation to sympy return _str_to_sympy(expr)
@cached def _str_to_sympy(expr): try: s_expr = SympyNodeRenderer().render_expr(expr) except (TypeError, ValueError, NameError) as ex: raise SyntaxError(('Error during evaluation of sympy expression ' '"{expr}": {ex}').format(expr=expr, ex=str(ex))) return s_expr
[docs]class CustomSympyPrinter(StrPrinter): ''' Printer that overrides the printing of some basic sympy objects. E.g. print "a and b" instead of "And(a, b)". ''' def _print_And(self, expr): return ' and '.join(['(%s)' % self.doprint(arg) for arg in expr.args]) def _print_Or(self, expr): return ' or '.join(['(%s)' % self.doprint(arg) for arg in expr.args]) def _print_Not(self, expr): if len(expr.args) != 1: raise AssertionError('"Not" with %d arguments?' % len(expr.args)) return 'not (%s)' % self.doprint(expr.args[0]) def _print_Relational(self, expr): return '%s %s %s' % (self.parenthesize(expr.lhs, precedence(expr)), self._relationals.get(expr.rel_op) or expr.rel_op, self.parenthesize(expr.rhs, precedence(expr))) def _print_Function(self, expr): # Special workaround for the int function if expr.func.__name__ == 'int_': return "int(%s)" % self.stringify(expr.args, ", ") elif expr.func.__name__ == 'Mod': return '((%s)%%(%s))' % (self.doprint(expr.args[0]), self.doprint(expr.args[1])) else: return expr.func.__name__ + "(%s)" % self.stringify(expr.args, ", ")
PRINTER = CustomSympyPrinter()
[docs]@cached def sympy_to_str(sympy_expr): ''' sympy_to_str(sympy_expr) Converts a sympy expression into a string. This could be as easy as ``str(sympy_exp)`` but it is possible that the sympy expression contains functions like ``Abs`` (for example, if an expression such as ``sqrt(x**2)`` appeared somewhere). We do want to re-translate ``Abs`` into ``abs`` in this case. Parameters ---------- sympy_expr : sympy.core.expr.Expr The expression that should be converted to a string. Returns str_expr : str A string representing the sympy expression. ''' orig_sympy_expr = sympy_expr # replace the standard functions by our names if necessary replacements = dict((f.sympy_func, sympy.Function(name)) for name, f in DEFAULT_FUNCTIONS.items() if f.sympy_func is not None and isinstance(f.sympy_func, sympy.FunctionClass) and str(f.sympy_func) != name) # replace constants with our names as well replacements.update(dict((c.sympy_obj, sympy.Symbol(name)) for name, c in DEFAULT_CONSTANTS.items() if str(c.sympy_obj) != name)) # Replace the placeholder argument by an empty symbol replacements[sympy.Symbol('_placeholder_arg')] = sympy.Symbol('') atoms = (sympy_expr.atoms() | {f.func for f in sympy_expr.atoms(sympy.Function)}) for old, new in replacements.items(): if old in atoms: sympy_expr = sympy_expr.subs(old, new) expr = PRINTER.doprint(sympy_expr) return expr
[docs]def expression_complexity(expr, complexity=None): ''' Returns the complexity of an expression (either string or sympy) The complexity is defined as 1 for each arithmetic operation except divide which is 2, and all other operations are 20. This can be overridden using the complexity argument. Note: calling this on a statement rather than an expression is likely to lead to errors. Parameters ---------- expr: `sympy.Expr` or str The expression. complexity: None or dict (optional) A dictionary mapping expression names to their complexity, to overwrite default behaviour. Returns ------- complexity: int The complexity of the expression. ''' if isinstance(expr, str): # we do this because sympy.count_ops doesn't handle inequalities (TODO: handle sympy as well str) for op in ['<=', '>=', '==', '<', '>']: expr = expr.replace(op, '+') # work around bug with rand() and randn() (TODO: improve this) expr = expr.replace('rand()', 'rand(0)') expr = expr.replace('randn()', 'randn(0)') subs = {'ADD': 1, 'DIV': 2, 'MUL': 1, 'SUB': 1} if complexity is not None: subs.update(complexity) ops = sympy.count_ops(expr, visual=True) for atom in ops.atoms(): if hasattr(atom, 'name'): subs[] = 20 # unknown operations assumed to have a large cost return ops.evalf(subs=subs)