sin function

(Shortest import: from brian2 import sin)

brian2.units.unitsafefunctions.sin(x, /, out=None, *, where=True, casting='same_kind', order='K', dtype=None, subok=True[, signature, extobj])

Trigonometric sine, element-wise.


x : array_like

Angle, in radians (\(2 \pi\) rad equals 360 degrees).

out : ndarray, None, or tuple of ndarray and None, optional

A location into which the result is stored. If provided, it must have a shape that the inputs broadcast to. If not provided or None, a freshly-allocated array is returned. A tuple (possible only as a keyword argument) must have length equal to the number of outputs.

where : array_like, optional

Values of True indicate to calculate the ufunc at that position, values of False indicate to leave the value in the output alone.

**kwargs :

For other keyword-only arguments, see the ufunc docs.


y : array_like

The sine of each element of x. This is a scalar if x is a scalar.

See also

arcsin(), sinh(), cos()


The sine is one of the fundamental functions of trigonometry (the mathematical study of triangles). Consider a circle of radius 1 centered on the origin. A ray comes in from the \(+x\) axis, makes an angle at the origin (measured counter-clockwise from that axis), and departs from the origin. The \(y\) coordinate of the outgoing ray’s intersection with the unit circle is the sine of that angle. It ranges from -1 for \(x=3\pi / 2\) to +1 for \(\pi / 2.\) The function has zeroes where the angle is a multiple of \(\pi\). Sines of angles between \(\pi\) and \(2\pi\) are negative. The numerous properties of the sine and related functions are included in any standard trigonometry text.


Print sine of one angle:

>>> np.sin(np.pi/2.)

Print sines of an array of angles given in degrees:

>>> np.sin(np.array((0., 30., 45., 60., 90.)) * np.pi / 180. )
array([ 0.        ,  0.5       ,  0.70710678,  0.8660254 ,  1.        ])

Plot the sine function:

>>> import matplotlib.pylab as plt
>>> x = np.linspace(-np.pi, np.pi, 201)
>>> plt.plot(x, np.sin(x))
>>> plt.xlabel('Angle [rad]')
>>> plt.ylabel('sin(x)')
>>> plt.axis('tight')